Feed microbiome: confounding factor affecting fish gut microbiome studies
Tidsskrift : ISME Communications , vol. 2 , p. 4 , 2022
Utgiver : Springer Nature
Trykt : 2730-6151
Elektronisk : 2730-6151
Publikasjonstype : Short communication
DOI : doi.org/10.1038/s43705-022-000...
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There is an increasing interest in the impact of feed on the fish gut microbiome. Most of the studies are based on sequencing the bacterial housekeeping gene 16S rRNA from extracted total DNA, including resident and non-resident live bacteria as well as dead bacteria. It has not been a common practice to include the feed as control, although it contains various nutritious ingredients that microorganisms can use before or after feed preparation. Thus, study designs using digesta as a proxy for the intestinal microbiome raise the concern that composition of the gut microbiome might be biased by carry-over of microbial DNA from the feed itself. Here we report analysis of 15 feeds and representative intestinal digesta of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from five independent case studies. This allowed us to identify “feed microbiomes” that were microbially diverse and shared taxa with digesta microbiomes. Digesta-specific microbiomes were identified, though they were mainly enriched by a few taxa, such as Mycoplasma and Ruminococcaceae. Overall, findings are consistent with a model wherein gut microbial profiles are to a different degree influenced by bacterial DNA present in the feed itself through a “feed microbiome” carry-over effect.