Tidsskrift : Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety , vol. 270 , p. 1–14–13 , 2024
Utgiver : Elsevier
Trykt : 0147-6513
Elektronisk : 1090-2414
Publikasjonstype : Vitenskapelig artikkel
Har du spørsmål om noe vedrørende publikasjonen, kan du kontakte Nofimas bibliotekleder.
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) might encounter toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas during aquaculture production. Exposure to this gas can be acute or chronic, with heightened levels often linked to significant mortality rates. Despite its recognised toxicity, our understanding of the physiological implications of H2S on salmon remains limited. This report details the mucosal and systemic physiological consequences in post-smolt salmon reared in brackish water at 12 ppt after prolonged exposure to elevated H2S levels over 4 weeks. The fish were subjected to two concentrations of H2S: 1 µg/L (low group) and 5 µg/L (high group). An unexposed group at 0 µg/L served as the control. Both groups exposed to H2S exhibited incremental mortality, with cumulative mortality rates of 4.7 % and 16 % for the low and high groups, respectively. Production performance, including weight and condition factors, were reduced in the H2S-exposed groups, particularly in the high group. Mucosal response of the olfactory organ revealed higher tissue damage scores in the H2S-exposed groups, albeit only at week 4. The high group displayed pronounced features such as increased mucus cell density and oedema-like vacuoles. Transcriptome analysis of the olfactory organ unveiled that the effects of H2S were more prominent at week 4, with the high group experiencing a greater magnitude of change than the low group. Genes associated with the extracellular matrix were predominantly downregulated, while the upregulated genes primarily pertained to immune response. H2S-induced alterations in the metabolome were more substantial in plasma than skin mucus. Furthermore, the number of differentially affected circulating metabolites was higher in the low group compared to the high group. Five core pathways were significantly impacted by H2S regardless of concentration, including the phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis. The plasma levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine were reduced following exposure to H2S. While there was a discernible distinction in the skin mucus metabolomes among the three treatment groups, only one metabolite – 4-hydroxyproline – was significantly impacted by H2S. Furthermore, this metabolite was significantly reduced in the plasma and skin mucus of H2S-exposed fish. This study underscores that prolonged exposure to H2S, even at concentrations previously deemed sub-lethal, has discernible physiological implications that manifest across various organisational levels. Given these findings, prolonged exposure to H2S poses a welfare risk, and thus, its presence must be maintained at low levels (<1 µg/L) in salmon land-based rearing systems.