Publisert 2024

Les på engelsk


Tidsskrift : Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety , 2024

Utgiver : Elsevier

Internasjonale standardnummer :
Trykt : 0147-6513
Elektronisk : 1090-2414

Publikasjonstype : Fagartikkel

Bidragsytere : Ara-Diaz, Juan Bosco; Hansen-Bergstedt, Julie; Albaladejo-Riad, Nora; Malik, Muhammad Salman; Andersen, Øivind; Lazado, Carlo C.


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Kjetil Aune


Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is considered an immunotoxicant, and its presence in the water can influence the mucosal barrier functions of fish. However, there is a significant knowledge gap on how fish mucosa responds to low environmental H2S levels. The present study investigated the consequences of prolonged exposure to sub-lethal levels of H2S on the mucosal defences of Atlantic salmon. Fish were continuously exposed to two levels of H2S (low: 0.05 µM; and high: 0.12 µM) for 12 days. Unexposed fish served as control. Molecular and histological profiling focused on the changes in the skin, gills and olfactory rosette. In addition, metabolomics and proteomics were performed on the skin and gill mucus. The gene expression profile indicated that the gills and olfactory rosette were more sensitive to H2S than the skin. The olfactory rosette showed a dose-dependent response, but not the gills. Genes related to stress responses were triggered at mucosal sites by H2S. Moreover, H2S elicited strong inflammatory responses, particularly in the gills. All mucosal organs demonstrated the key molecular repertoire for sulphide detoxification, but their temporal and spatial expression was not substantially affected by sub-lethal H2S levels. Mucosal barrier integrity was not considerably affected by H2S. Mucus metabolomes of the skin and gills were not affected, but a matrix-dependent response was identified. Comparing the skin and gills mucus metabolomes of the high-concentration group identified altered amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways. The skin and gill mucus exhibited distinct proteomic profiles. Enrichment analysis revealed that proteins related to immunity and metabolism were affected in both mucus matrices. The present study expands our knowledge of the defence mechanisms against H2S at mucosal sites in Atlantic salmon. The findings offer insights into the health and welfare consequences of sub-lethal H2S, which can be incorporated into the risk assessment protocols in salmon land-based farms.


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