Broodstock diet with water and astaxanthin improve condition and egg output of brood fish and larval survival in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L
Tidsskrift : Aquaculture Research , vol. 47 , p. 819–829 , 2016
Trykt : 1355-557X
Elektronisk : 1365-2109
Publikasjonstype : Vitenskapelig artikkel
Sak : 3
DOI : doi.org/10.1111/are.12540
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Broodstock of Atlantic cod were fed with three diets; astaxanthin supplemented (100 ppm kg_1) hydrated diet (30% water) (HWHAs), no additional astaxanthin supplemented (50 ppm kg_1) hydrated diet (30% water) (HWLAs) and a control diet (50 ppm kg_1 astaxanthin and 10% water). Throughout the spawning period, eggs were collected daily and fertilization success and proportion of embryos with normal cleavage were recorded. Larvae were reared using standard culture methods. Larval growth was recorded every 10 days and larval survival was recorded at 50 days post hatch. In general, broodstock fed with diets containing higher water content (HWHAs and HWLAs) and higher astaxanthin (HWHAs) had higher egg production and efficiency of egg output, lower egg incubation mortality and higher larval growth and survival. Broodstock fed with higher water content diets consumed less feed compared to control group. Also, broodstock fed with HWHAs and HWLAs recovered faster in terms of body condition than the control group. The egg bound mortality of female fish was significantly higher in control broodstock compared to broodstock fed with HWHAs and HWLAs. Broodstock fed with higher astaxanthin (HWHAs) had significantly higher fertilization success than other two groups however; no differences were found in proportion embryos with normal cleavage among different groups. Larval survival was significantly higher in HWHAs broodstock compared to other two groups. Our results showed that increased water content and astaxanthin levels in the diet could improve the condition and fecundity of Atlantic cod broodstock.