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Effects of dietary cadmium on calsium-homeostasis, calsium mobilisation and bone deformities in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) parr

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Kjetil Aune

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Aquaculture Nutrition ; Volume 217. p. 547–558. 2003

Berntssen, Marc; Waagbø, Rune; Toften, Hilde; Lundebye, A. K.

Atlantic salmon parr were reared for 4 months on experimental fish-meal-based diets supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 5, 25, 125 or 250 mg Cd kg(-1) feed to assess the effects of dietary Cd on active Ca uptake, mobilization of Ca from internal reservoirs, and development of bone malformations. The accumulation of dietary Cd in tissues was, in decreasing order, intestine>kidney>>gill>bone. No significant accumulation of Cd in the scales was observed. Strongest inhibition of ATP dependent Ca uptake (measured as Ca2+- and Na+/K+-ATPase) was observed in the intestine of salmon fed 25 mg Cd kg(-1) . This suppression in active intestinal Ca uptake did not lead to disturbed plasma Ca levels. Significant reduction of Ca from the scales in salmon fed 25 mg Cd kg(-1) , indicates remobilization of Ca to maintain Ca homeostasis. At the end of the experiment no significant differences were observed in bone Ca levels, nor were any bone malformations observed in any of the dietary Cd-exposed salmon. This indicates that bone as an endogenous Ca reservoir is spared compared with scales. It was concluded that dietary Cd-induced disturbance of Ca homeostasis did not lead to bone deformities, even when Atlantic salmon were fed high amounts of cadmium. This indicates a low risk of spinal deformations being developed in Atlantic salmon sub-chronically exposed to high Cd concentrations in the feed.

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