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The diversity of fish hemoglobins and the association with oxygen availability and physiological requirements during the life cycle has attracted scientists since the first report on multiple hemoglobin in fishes (Buhler and Shanks 1959). The functional heterogeneity of the fish hemoglobins enables many species to tolerate hypoxic conditions and exhausting swimming, but also to maintain the gas pressure in the swim bladder at large depths. The hemoglobin repertoire has further increased in various species displaying polymorphic hemoglobin variants differing in oxygen binding properties. The multiplicity of fish hemoglobins as particularly found in the tetraploid salmonids strongly contrasts with the complete loss of hemoglobins in Antarctic icefishes and illustrates the adaptive radiation in the oxygen transport of this successful vertebrate group.