Vitenskapelig artikkel

Sensory qualities of whole wheat pan bread—influence of farming system, milling and baking technique

Kihlberg, Iwona; Johansson, Lisbeth; Kohler, Achim; Risvik, Einar


Tidsskrift: Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 39, p. 67–84, 2004

Internasjonale standardnumre:
Trykt: 0733-5210
Elektronisk: 1095-9963

Open Access: none


Organic wheat production has increased in Sweden, and there is a need to describe the quality of the final product. To optimize utilization of alternatively grown wheat for human consumption, it is necessary to understand the effects of crop and processing variation on the sensory qualities of the final product. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of farming systems, milling technique, and variation in formulation on the sensory attributes of whole wheat pan bread. Six samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum, variety Kosack) from field trials, three grown in conventional farming systems and three in organic farming systems (biodynamic and ecological), were roller- and stone-milled, respectively. Breads were baked according to an experimental design in which two levels of flour and two levels of kneading were also included. Sensory analysis, achieved through a descriptive profiling test, was conducted with eight trained assessors using 19 sensory attributes for 48 different bread types in two replicates. Image analysis was used to establish the slice area of the breads. Milling technique had a greater impact on the sensory qualities of bread and on the slice area than did farming system and baking technique. Conventional wheat had lower protein and ash contents, but higher volume weight than did the organic wheat. Damaged starch, extensographic values (Rm,E) and farinographic values for water absorption, dough development time and dough stability were higher for roller-milled samples than for the stone-milled. Whole meal breads of roller-milled wheat were dominated by sweetness, juiciness and compactness attributes, whereas those from stone-milled wheat were characterized by saltiness, deformity and roasted cereal attributes. The six wheat samples revealed that variation in breads' sensory qualities was larger for the three organic samples than for the three conventional samples.