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Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) muscle structure integrity and lysosomal cathepsins B and L influenced by dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids

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Kjetil Aune

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kjetil.aune@nofima.no

Food Chemistry ; Volume 114. p. 1421–1432. 2009

Bahuaud, Diane; Østbye, Tone-Kari K; Torstensen, Bente Elisabeth; Rørå, Mia B.; Ofstad, Ragni; Veiseth-Kent, Eva; Thomassen, Magny S.; Ruyter, Bente

This study had two main objectives: first, to evaluate the impact of different types and levels of dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FAs) on Atlantic salmon muscle structure integrity: second, to highlight a possible role of lysosomes and lysosomal degrading enzymes, cathepsins, in fish muscle structure integrity, in relation to dietary fatty acids. Four groups of Atlantic salmon (90 g starting weight) in fresh water tanks were fed one of four diets containing 23% crude lipids, with 100% of the added oils as either fish oil (FO), rapeseed oil (RO), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) enriched-oil or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enriched-oil. The RO diet was characterised by low levels of EPA + DHA (10% of total FAs), whereas the EPA and DHA diets were characterised by very high levels of EPA + DHA (>50% of total FAs). Fatty acid composition of the muscle crude lysosomal fraction (CLF) generally reflected the diets. Salmon fed the RO diet presented a muscle CLIF FA composition close to the one of the FO group, showing moderate PUFA levels. and comparable cathepsin B and cathepsin L activities, relative gene expression of cathepsin B and cathepsin L in the muscle and rate of myofibre-myofibre detachments post-mortem. Salmon fed the EPA and DHA-enriched-oil diets presented a fairly similar muscle CLF FA composition, but different from the FO and RO groups. In the EPA and DHA groups, the percentage of PUFAs in the muscle CLF, the rate of myofibre-myofibre detachments and the relative gene expression of cathepsin B were higher than in the FO and RO groups. Cathepsin B and cathepsin L total activities in the muscle were however lower in the EPA and DHA groups 0 h post-mortem. Dietary lipids influenced the level of lysosomal degrading enzyme activity cathepsin B and cathepsin L as well as the relative gene expression of cathepsin B. Feeding Atlantic salmon with rapeseed oil and extreme levels of EPA + DHA highlighted the impact of fatty acid composition of the diet on salmon muscle integrity and the complexity of the process involving muscle lysosomes and cathepsins in relation to these dietary fatty acids. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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