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Expression profiles of genes associated with immune response and oxidative stress in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua head kidney leukocytes modulated by live and heat-inactivated intestinal bacteria
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology ; Volume 155. p. 249–255. 2009
Lazado, Carlo C.; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe; Gallage, Sanchala; Brinchmann, Monica Fengsrud; Kiron, Viswanath
The molecular mechanisms of immune response and antioxidant defense in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua head kidney (HK) leukocytes to live and heat-inactivated intestinal bacteria were investigated by transcriptome analyses. The HK leukocytes were incubated with Pseudomonas sp. (GP21) and Psychrobacter sp. (GP12), which are intestinal bacteria of Atlantic cod. The responses of the defense-associated genes at 3 and 24 hours post-incubation (hpi) were assayed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Live and heat-inactivated GP21caused a significant increase in the transcript levels of bacterial defense genes in the HK leukocytes: BPI/LBP and g-type lysozyme were highest at 24 hpi. The levels of BPI/LBP were significantly upregulated at 24 hpi by live GP12 but not by the heat-inactivated type. The expression of g-type lysozyme was significantly elevated regardless of the type of GP12. IL-1_b was significantly upreulated by live GP21 and GP12, with maximum expression observed at 3 hpi. In contrast, the expression levels of IL8 in the HK leukocytes were not augmented by both types of GP21 and GP12. A significant upregulation of the nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein-1 (NCCRP-1) was observed with live GP12 at 3 hpi, whereas in the case of GP21 such a change was noted only with the heat-inactivated type at 24 hpi. A definite pattern of granzyme expression was not observed with both the live and heat-inactivated GP21 and GP12. The levels of antioxidant genes (catalase and GSH-Px) remained unchanged except in cells incubated with heat-inactivated GP21, where a significant elevation of GSH-Px was seen at 24 hpi. Thus, this in vitro study has revealed that the defense mechanisms in the HK leukocytes can be modulated by the commensal intestinal bacteria of Atlantic cod. The extent of this activation is dependent on the bacterial species and its viability.