Konferansebidrag og faglig presentasjon » Vitenskapelig foredrag
Genomics-assisted breeding to improve pre-harvest sprouting resistance in wheat
Norwegian Plant Biology 2016; Trondheim, 2016-06-15–2016-06-17
Lillemo, Morten; Alsheikh, Muath K; Dieseth, Jon Arne; Færgestad, Ellen Mosleth; Uhlen, Anne Kjersti; Belova, Tatiana; Olsen, Odd-Arne
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is the most important quality-degrading factor of wheat in Norway. PHS is caused by the untimely germination of grains before harvest, while they are still on their mother plants in the field. This leads to production of alpha-amylases, proteases and glucanases that break down cell walls, starch and gluten proteins in the endosperm, and destroys the breadmaking quality. PHS occurs in susceptible cultivars when exposed to rain after maturity and is to a large extent determined by the level of seed dormancy, a complex quantitatively inherited trait that is highly dependent on environmental conditions, genetic background and genotype-byenvironment interactions. However, despite the high importance of this trait, little has been known about the genetic basis for PHS resistance in the Norwegian wheat germplasm until recently. Wheat genomics resources, including high-density SNP chips and genome sequence data has facilitated big advances in the molecular genetic understanding of this trait. This talk will give a review of recently cloned genes for seed dormancy in wheat, and how this relates to PHS resistance in Norwegian germplasm. The recently funded project “Expanding the technology base for Norwegian wheat breeding: genomic tools for breeding of high quality bread wheat” (NFR 256370, 2016-2020) will also presented. In this project, Graminor, NMBU and NOFIMA are joining forces to unravel the genetic basis of PHS resistance in Norwegian wheat, develop molecular markers for the trait, and lay the grounds for applying genomic selection in Norwegian Wheat breeding.