Academic article

Identification of stress sensitive genes in hyperthermic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) embryos by RAP-PCR

Takle, Harald Rune; Bæverfjord, Grete; Andersen, Øivind

Publication details

Journal: Fish Physiology & Biochemistry, vol. 30, p. 275–281–7, 2005

International Standard Numbers:
Printed: 0920-1742
Electronic: 1573-5168

Open Access: none

Links:
DOI

Deformities of skeletal structures, the heart, and other organs are a recurrent problem in species used in intensive aquaculture. Elevated egg incubation temperature appears to be a high risk factor in the development of these malformations, but the causal relation has not been established. Our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in the development of heat induced deformities in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Temperature sensitive genes were isolated by RNA Arbitrarily Primed (RAP)-PCR. A total of 33 RAP-PCR products were successfully sequenced, and the expression of eight identified genes was further examined by RT-PCR from pooled samples of heat exposed embryos. Five of these genes were demonstrated to be temperature sensitive, of which four were shown to be up-regulated and one was down-regulated at elevated water temperatures. The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene, which is a promising candidate for heart deformities, showed the highest level of heat induction. Three additional RAP-PCR products identified as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleprotein (hnRNP) A0, acyl CoA binding protein (ACBP) and mitochondrial (mt)-HSP70 showed up-regulated mRNA expression in response to elevated water temperature. The single down-regulated gene was identified as an Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) homolog of the cysteine and tyrosine-rich 1 (CYYR1) gene. This study demonstrated that a temperature elevation of only 4 degrees C during the early stages of the organogenesis in Atlantic salmon induce altered expression of a number of genes, which are candidates for the development of heat induced deformities.