Journal: Marine Drugs, vol. 19, p. 1–16, 2021
International Standard Numbers:
Open Access: gold
Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by extensive intestinal inflammation, and therapies against the disease target suppression of the inflammatory cascade. Nutrition has been closely linked to the development and suppression of inflammatory bowel disease, which to a large extent is attributed to the complex immunomodulatory properties of nutrients. Diets containing fish have been suggested to promote health and suppress inflammatory diseases. Even though most of the health-promoting properties of fish-derived nutrients are attributed to fish oil, the potential health-promoting properties of fish protein have not been investigated. Fish sidestreams contain large amounts of proteins, currently unexploited, with potential anti-inflammatory properties, and may possess additional benefits through bioactive peptides and free amino acids. In this project, we utilized fish protein hydrolysates, based on mackerel and salmon heads and backbones, as well as flounder skin collagen. Mice fed with a diet supplemented with different fish sidestream-derived protein hydrolysates (5% w/w) were exposed to the model of DSS-induced colitis. The results show that dietary supplements containing protein hydrolysates from salmon heads suppressed chemically-induced colitis development as determined by colon length and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. To evaluate colitis severity, we measured the expression of different pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and found that the same supplement suppressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα and the chemokines Cxcl1 and Ccl3. We also assessed the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and Tgfb and found that selected protein hydrolysates induced their expression. Our findings demonstrate that protein hydrolysates derived from fish sidestreams possess anti-inflammatory properties in the model of DSS-induced colitis, providing a novel underexplored source of health-promoting dietary supplements.