Journal: Biology (Basel), vol. 9, p. 1–12, 2020
International Standard Numbers:
Open Access: gold
Haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) is a disorder of unknown aetiology causing losses in the fresh water phase of Atlantic salmon farming. Normally, the mortality is limited and symptoms disappear upon seawater exposure. In this case study, classical HSS pathology with internal organ haemorrhages and nephrocalcinosis was diagnosed, and the losses were substantial. Microarray analyses of head kidney revealed association between HSS and enhanced expression of stress genes and proteins reducing bioavailability of iron, heme, and retinol. In parallel, suppression of multiple metabolic pathways was observed. Up-regulation of genes encoding acute phase proteins, complement, and lectins indicated mild inflammation but without characteristic features of viral or bacterial infections. Microarray analyses highlighted several members of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may control development of B-cell immunity. Examination of IgM at the mRNA and protein levels showed the impact of HSS on vaccine responses. In fish without HSS symptoms (non-HSS), titres of vaccine specific antibodies to A-layer of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and Moritella viscosa and antibodies binding to DNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), which are presumably polyreactive, were respectively four- and 14-fold higher than in HSS-diseased fish. Parallel sequencing of variable regions of immunoglobulin Mrevealed a larger size of most abundant clonotypes shared by multiple individuals in the non-HSS group. The results of the current case study indicated that, in addition to direct damage, HSS suppresses humoral immune responses including the production of specific and polyreactive antibodies.