Academic article

Characterization of Commercial Rye Bread Based on Sensory Properties, Fluidity Index and Chemical Acidity

Sandvik, Pernilla; Marklinder, Ingela; Nydahl, Margaretha; Næs, Tormod; Kihlberg, Iwona

Publication details

Journal: Journal of sensory studies, vol. 31, p. 283–295, 2016

Issue: 4

International Standard Numbers:
Printed: 0887-8250
Electronic: 1745-459X

Open Access: none


Rye bread is often considered healthy, especially regarding its potential beneficial
effect on blood glucose and insulin regulation, but the characteristics of Swedish rye
bread have not previously been described. The aim was to characterize commercial rye
bread (n524) using sensory descriptive analysis (11 panelists, 15 attributes, 2
replicates), fluidity index (FI; an in vitro measurement to predict glycemic properties),
chemical acidity and selected package information. The associations between sensory
and chemical measurements were explored to identify the opportunities and
challenges of increased consumption of rye bread with potential health benefits.
Six categories of rye bread were identified on the basis of their sensory profiles. The FI
indicated that bread from three of the categories possessed beneficial glycemic
properties (FI 50–75). These categories contained 31–100% rye, displaying pH 4.3–4.8.
Sensory attributes, foremost textural (e.g., chewiness), but also flavor (e.g., sourness),
were highly correlated with FI values, thereby revealing their potential to aid consumers,
in that they can serve as quality indicators of the glycemic properties of commercial rye
bread. However, this also highlights potential sensory barriers to consumption. Frontof-
package rye and sourdough labels on some samples could potentially mislead
consumers given the low content of rye/sourdough, despite the labels.