Academic article

Molecular Analyses of Salmonellaenterica Isolates from Fish Feed Factories and Fish Feed Ingredients

Nesse, Live Lingaas; Nordby, Kerstin; Heir, Even; Bergsjø, Bjarne A; Vardund, Traute; Nygaard, Halvor; Holstad, Gudmund

Publication details

Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 69, p. 1075–1081, 2003

Issue: 2

International Standard Numbers:
Printed: 0099-2240
Electronic: 1098-5336

Open Access: none


Isolates of the most commonly observed salmonella serovars in Norwegian fish feed factories from 1998 to 2000 (Salmonella enterica serovar Agona, S. enterica serovar Montevideo, S. enterica serovar Senftenberg, and S. enterica serovar Kentucky) were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and plasmid profile analysis and compared to isolates of the same serovars from fish feed ingredients, humans, and other sources (a total of 112 isolates). Within each serovar, a variety of distinct PFGE types (with similarity levels less than 90%) were observed in the feed ingredients and other sources, while only two distinct types of each serovar were identified in the factories. The combined results of PFGE and plasmid analyses showed that each factory harbored only a few S. enterica clones. Some of these clones persisted for at least 3 years in the factories, indicating that there was long-lasting contamination probably due to inadequate decontamination procedures.