Journal publication » Academic article
Effects of dietary thia fatty acids on lipid composition, morphology and macrophage function of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) kidney
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology ; Volume 148. 2007
Gjøen, Tor; Kleveland, Ellen Johanne; Moya-Falcon, Corina; Frøystad, Marianne K.; Vegusdal, Anne; Hvattum, Erlend; Berge, Rolf; Ruyter, Bente
High lipid levels are being used in modem salmonid diets to promote rapid growth; however there is a limiting supply of the traditional fish oils as the fish farming industry expands. One way to utilize the lipid sources better, could be to find ways to stimulate fatty acid (FA) oxidation so that Atlantic salmon use more energy for muscle growth and less for storage in pet visceral adipose tissue. We have previously shown that dietary inclusion of the thia FA tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) promoted hepatic beta-oxidation and reduced total body lipid levels. However, dietary TTA also had some negative effects, leading to accumulation of sulfone and sulfoxide metabolites of TTA in the kidney and increasing mortality rates, particularly at low water temperatures. Therefore we also wish to investigate the effects of TTA on kidney function at high and low temperatures, including some immune system parameters. The production of leukotriene B-4 (LTB4) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) immunoreactive material from exogenously added arachidonic acid in isolated head kidney macrophages was affected by both diet and temperature. The phagocytic activity in these cells was reduced by DTA in the 12 degrees C group and there was significantly higher protein degradation in head kidney macrophages at 12 degrees C compared to 5 degrees C in all dietary groups. Interestingly, the incorporation of thia FAs in the kidney was higher at 5 degrees C (0.3% TTA and 0.6% DTA) than at 12 degrees C (0.1% TTA and 0.5% DTA). Additionally, there were lower levels of saturated FAs, while higher levels of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) in the kidney of TTA fed fish at 5 degrees C. We also observed temperature-independent tubular dilatation and a reduction in the density of melanomacrophages of the kidney in salmon fed TTA. Nevertheless, the rnRNA expression of some immune-relevant genes in head kidney tissue was not affected by TTA-inclusion in salmon diets. In conclusion, it is clear that 0.6% TTA-inclusion in the feed leads to changes in the kidney function particularly at low water temperatures. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.